ahimsaa samataa tushtistapo daanam yashoyashaha |
bhavanti bhaavaa bhootaanaam matta eva prithagvidhaahaa || 5 ||

 
Non-injury, equanimity, contentment, penance, charity, fame and infamy, these various states of living beings arise from me only.
 
ahimsaa : non-injury
samataa : equanimity
tushtihi : contentment
tapaha : penance
daanam : charity
yashaha : fame
ayashaha : infamy
bhavanti : occur
bhaavaaha : arise
bhootaanaam : of living beings
mattaha : from me
eva : only
prithagvidhaahaa : various
 
Shri Krishna continues to describe Ishvara’s subtle expressions in this shloka. He begins with the description of “ahimsaa” or non-injury. Non-injury typically is understood as refraining from physically hurting a living being. But more broadly, it means refraining from depriving someone else of happiness, knowledge and finitude. For instance, if we cheat someone or we insult someone, we are not practising non-injury.
 
Next is “samataa” or equanimity. The second chapter speaks elaborately on the quality of equanimity or balance as paramount to the performance of karma yoga. If external factors such as heat, cold, praise and censure destabilize our mind, it means that our ego is attached to those factors and disturbs the balance of our mind. Maintaining equanimity in such situations is a sign of healthy detachment and dispassion.
 
“Tushtihi” or contentment refers to “prasaada buddhi”, or the ability to accept everything in life, good or bad, joyful or sorrowful, as a gift from Ishvara. If we are constantly unhappy with what life gives us, we are failing to recognize the infinitude of our eternal essence, and are instead attached to our limited, finite ego.
 
“Tapaha” or penance refers to the energy that builds up in our body when we practice restraint of our sense organs. For example, if we refrain for talking for a day, that energy is conserved within our body and generates heat which is known as “tapas”. “Daanam” or charity refers to donating or distributing our wealth so that we do not get into the practice of hoarding.
 
“Yasha” is the fame that comes through pursuit of dharma or lawful conduct, and “ayashaha” is the infamy that results through the pursuit of adharma or unlawful conduct.
 
Shri Krishna concludes this topic by asserting that all of these qualities are generated in us by none other than Ishvara. However, there is a set of rules that govern the creation of these qualities. It does not happen randomly or in an ad-hoc manner. It is our karma or actions that determine which qualities or states will arise within us. If we constantly surround ourselves with good company, we will automatically imbibe good qualities and vice versa.
 
So far, Shri Krishna has described Ishvara’s subtle expressions. We now will being to see Ishvara’s tangible, visible expressions starting from the next shloka.

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